Iis 10 Slow Response

I decided to look at the Event viewer and found some errors that might mean something to someone more knowledgeable than me. Virtualize where possible. That was then they called me. Dynamic IP Restrictions. After 2 years, I have finally solved my "Slow Hyper-V Guest Network Performance" issue. Session Loss due to Application Domain recycle- Basics. PHP was always released for windows with thread safe libraries because Windows is a multithreaded architecture. No matter if I request a static content, a php script via FastCGI or a ASP. I thought, like others on the internet, that the kindle device or its USB port is so so slow and that’s the reason calibre is slow. 97115B40" This document is a Single File Web Page, also known as a Web Archive file. For some reason, at the same time every. Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly Internet Information Server) is a Microsoft web server created for use with the Windows NT family. somebody has the same behavior? is left some setup on IIS?? maybe something about garbage, or cache files, something? finally, I have to say that IW its a great product. ",xkon,10 48187,Missing admin. My old laptop (clean "insider" install of 10) with lower specs was blazing fast compared to the much more powerful desktop PC. xml format) that shows events and notifications from the va. Find answers to Web service response is very slow from the expert community at Experts Exchange. You jump into action and recycle the worker process; all appears to be working again, as normal. IIS is very efficient at handling static content and content re-routing and in this post I describe how you can properly configure ASP. The name of the game with direct response marketing is ‘money at a discount,’ e. NET Framework. The issue seems to be high cpu usage. Brotli is a new compression algorith developed by Google. Normally, response times should be as fast as possible, but it is also possible for the computer to react so fast that the user cannot keep up with the feedback. Because we all have different needs, Drupal allows you to create a unique space in a world of cookie-cutter solutions. The response status code is something other than 200. When your website is running slow – even by seconds – it potentially loses visitors and cuts into your bottom line. I had to restart Windows to get back normal fast performance. You should always monitor these with your application monitoring solution. 5) The new site is working on the new server, however it takes nearly 2x a long to load pages. How to install SSL Certificate on Windows Server 2012. Retrace monitors several by default and are always available. IIS also incorporates the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is responsible to mete out resources for thread processing. config set up is: How satisfied are you with this response? Thanks for your feedback. In the Connections pane, click to expand Sites, click to select the web site for which you would like to disable ASP debugging, click to select Features View, and then double-click the ASP feature. However, after upgrading to windows 10 and having it around for a while, I noticed a sharp decrease in internet speed. Mar 02, 2017 08:00 AM | Yuk Ding | LINK. One of our servers has around 10 WordPress websites hosted, 16Gb memory, 120Gb SSD drives. At best, this will leave a bad taste in your user's mouths. in the HP Software Security Response Team. The website has an attachment (10 megabytes) upload feature. Take the tour. Drupal - the leading open-source CMS for ambitious digital experiences that reach your audience across multiple channels. Ah, so it was the good old buddy IIS and the app pool. IIS on localhost is very slow. Recently I received a scan report from Qualys detecting vulnerability from Slow Http Post( Qid. 1 error) under Features View > HTTP Response Headers > Set Common HTTP Response Headers as detailed inEnable the HTTP Keep-Alive Response Header (IIS 7). NET Core applications using the AspNetCoreModule and IIS Rewrite Rules. Previous articles in the series cover: Identifying Slow HTTP Attack Vulnerabilities on Web Application. There is some mention that web browsers simply time out or stop responding completely when they are accessing your website. NET provide several Windows Performance Counters that are helpful for measuring web server traffic. 24 August 2017. Nobody likes a Slow Website. This monitored all IIS requests and created a dump file based on the long HTTP response time for the application in question. If you have a separate router, such as an AirPort. sys) receives and routes HTTP requests, and satisfies requests from its response cache. The smaller compressed response sizes allows for better space utilization and faster page loads. Brotli is able to outperform gzip in many situations. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Chang’s. 7 database instances. What is your actual goal (other than mapping port 80 to 8080)? It sounds like you just want to be able to respond to incoming requests on port 80 - so you don't have to tell users to use ":8080" on their requests - is that right?. A big part of an IIS server management is its monitoring. If you thought the official New York marathon statement about being cancelled was tone-deaf, just wait until you hear this — on video, no less:. Check your IIS logs to see if you're using up all ten connections at the times when you're experiencing the slowness. computer suddenly slow and choppy Hi I was playing game a suddenly the screen freeze and back to normal then freeze completetly thqt force me to reset my comp. Why slow time to last byte of the HTML file results in bad user experience. 97115B40" This document is a Single File Web Page, also known as a Web Archive file. With AutoDiscover is highlight in E2K7 and E2010, we know how important is to understand and troubleshoot this feature. NET applications hosted on IIS. Dear All, Can anyone let me know which one is fast in response?Datacap Web Services hosted as windows service or hosted on IIS we are facing slow response with Datacap web services hosted as windows service. Ran into a problem with extremely slow SQL Server connections when connecting to the server. It is always slow. Oct 24, 2016 at 6:32AM. Hi, I have installed Windows Server 2016 on the latest version of ESXI 6. NET threads, bad configuration, or request queueing. There may be a way to make it run faster in IIS, but running Linux/Apache seems to do the trick. Discover new ways to analyze how your page loads in this comprehensive reference of Chrome DevTools network analysis features. 0 Visual Studio 2017 version 15. NET Issues with Log Parser - Slow Performance -1. No matter if I request a static content, a php script via FastCGI or a ASP. One of our servers has around 10 WordPress websites hosted, 16Gb memory, 120Gb SSD drives. Wcf Service (Framework 4. Without touching the server at all, my IIS 7 suddenly got terribly slow. If the ETags don't match, the user doesn't receive the small, fast 304 response that ETags were designed for; instead, they'll get a normal 200 response along with all the data for the component. 0 server may be flagged as "insecure" by security scanning tools if internal IP address of the server is revealed. Internet Information Services (IIS) 10. Since IIS 7, there exists a separate concept for a virtual directory and an application. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories Cool M-slow = 15. Furthermore, IIS automatically stops services that are idle for a certain period of time. The Apache Tomcat software is developed in an open and participatory environment and released under the Apache License version 2. SharePoint performance mostly depends on Hard disk and memory however SP 2013 is a memory beast, I don't think 12gb is enough if it's a single development server, check this article out,. We've got a. NET MVC 5 application on a VPS with Windows Server 2012 R2 / IIS 8. DynaTrace shows that top findings as IIS Modules. And IIS hosted website/web services run under app pools. 0 is the version that ships as part of Windows Server 2012. I did IIS logparser and response times went after VM convert pretty terrible. Users experience intermittent slow response times through out the day when attempting to open the MicroStrategy Web home page when running on Microsoft IIS 7 More specifically, the very first request of the day will be slow, while all other requests will be fast. Why Is My Internet So Slow? Chris Hoffman @chrisbhoffman February 13, 2018, 6:40am EDT. Narrow down the scope of the slowness in the page. We are the go-to provider for any small business or large enterprise. Troubleshoot slow response for PHP application hosted in IIS 7 In this article I will discuss about troubleshooting slow response for PHP application. 5 on Windows 2012 R2. Tomas Sigurdarson reported Apr 12, 2017 at 09:33 AM. IIS is the web server which hosts the web application or web site built on. Thanks Suresh. If you are a new customer, register now for access to product evaluations and purchasing capabilities. In this article, I show how to host our ASP. exe (IIS App Pool) process seems to running rather high. I am seeing the fastest load times reduced from around 1. The name of the game with direct response marketing is ‘money at a discount,’ e. NET - Fixing slow initial load for IIS - Stack Overflow. txt * (bug 18751) Fix for buggage in profiling setup for some extensions on PHP. IIS is the Microsoft implementation of an HTTP web server. Lets have a look at some of the common problems and their solutions. The query with all the details will be shown to the user. Its great to know Hosting multiple domains under one site. 1) get no response - not just slow - they never resolve. Here's an example article which provides a lot of answers and solutions which mostly won't work for us who are on shared IIS servers which are found at most web hosting services: ASP. Mike Volodarsky's Blog Azure, IIS, ASP. Run a free website speed test from around the globe using real browsers at consumer connection speeds with detailed optimization recommendations. When copying multiple files between 200kb to 5 megabytes to local drive, it starts from 2-4 megabits/s and then drops to 20-40 kilobytes/s after couple of megs. Also, IE 9 is on my system, not 8, but there could still be an issue there And yes, my user does have admin rights, so Im a little confused on why it is running so slow Also, I am running it on IIS 7, without XAMPP, so that cant really have an effect. -H, B, R or X specify to slow down in headers section or in message body, -R enables range test, -X enables slow read test. 5 seconds after an IISRESET) - regardless of page, plugins etc. Analysis of HTTP Performance problems Simon E Spero, July 1994 Abstract This paper is the first in a series on performance issues in the World Wide Web. We will change the machine. would you do it? Of course you would! Struggling with slow IIS website performance? You are not alone. How do I find which Port IIS connect for localhost on Windows 10 OS MS SQL Server Compact and IIS 7 Express, on Windows 10 OS. We recently migrated a web server to a Hyper-v virtual machine. Eventually, I decided I really need to spend some time investigating why these. 0, Vista, Windows. 5 on Windows server 2012 r2 The problem is if there are more than 200 users at the same time IIS will stop working and will be very very slow an. In bouth cases it works with external sql 2005 server. (another cause of the dreaded 401. No matter if I request a static content, a php script via FastCGI or a ASP. Server 2012 R2, IIS 8. Please keep in mind that my logic states the ONLY thing that has changed was the IIS Server, not the SQL Server. Guarantee online customer security with SSL certificates from GeoTrust. TTFB stands for "Time To First Byte" Can cause noticable delay in web page rendering Represents a combination of network and server-side page speed issues Delays can occur between the time the browser makes a request and when the browser receives a response. The 334th Air Expeditionary Group launched HC-130J Combat King IIs, HH-60G Pavehawks, aircrew and support personnel to pre-position at Joint Base Charleston, S. By turning on a few options inside of IIS, the server started sending data to the client for. I have a web service developed in. When you enable output caching, IIS will keep a copy of requested webpages. In our scenario, it's the ASP. I'll also cover how to set the url when you are developing locally with Visual Studio using IIS Express, and how this relates to Kestrel and WebListener. NET MVC 5 Web App Startup to 3 Seconds. In short, it is broke. 0), REST command has no effect!! Slow Chat Archives. In IIS, the domain name of a URI belongs to a site. Get expert insight into your Windows web stack. In this scenario, the internal IP address of the server is returned to the client in an HTTP response. Understanding IIS 1. Once this command completed my EWS web application was restored. moreoftheroad. Speed up a slow Android device. IIS worker process: completion port. Inspecting the http request I noticed that the request header has ‘gzip deflate’ however the response is _not_ compressed using either of the 2 algorithms. 1) the web service response is taking more than 2 mins; the same method in existing windows 8. 0 and additional features to ease website development. When an HTTP request is picked up by IIS, it may be handled by multiple components before a response is generated back to the client computer. NET modules. This option assists with troubleshooting problems including high CPU, deadlocks, long HTTP response times, and. How does it work? SquaredUp is a data visualization platform that connects to your monitoring tools via APIs. Work smart with Sencha. Hi Gude, mitigation would depend on the details in the Slow HTTP Post QID. A web browser gets first the HTML file that includes all the references to the assets, which need to be downloaded subsequentially. The out of the box implementation simply waits for any sort of response, no matter the status code. Application pools allow you to isolate your applications from one another, even though they are running on…. Ask Question Internet Information Services (IIS) application pools can be periodically recycled to avoid unstable states that can lead to application crashes, hangs, or memory leaks. 5 from the expert community at Experts Exchange On the page that's running slow I increased it to include more records, so that response time was hitting 10 seconds then took out the code on the page that writes to the screen, this reduced the load time to half a. Microsoft IIS. Completed the upgrade to Windows 10. This setting can dramatically influence the scalability of your Web applications and the performance of your server in general. There is the possibility that your application who is responsible for building the response is failing to send the response. It seems that the machine is going through some type of process that takes long. Each of the web services themselves don't do much more than run a small query (I've run the queries elsewhere and. Not quite as slow as the server but still slow. This can result in there being a trailing, or ghost, image behind the new one. Recent studies have shown that changes in global mean precipitation are larger for solar forcing than for CO2 forcing of similar magnitude. But this code was very slow and it took several seconds to get the response. 5 (Windows Server 2008 R2 hosting)… First open the IIS Manager on your server, expand the Sites folder and then find the site you want to manage. The latest version of IIS is 10 - this is the version used in Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016. The resolution was so slow, in fact, that all of the clients hopped on to the secondary DNS server thinking that the primary had gone down. A kernel-mode web driver (http. Subsequent refresh requests/responses only take about 45 ms. I'm hosting a low-traffic ASP. In bouth cases it works with external sql 2005 server. Edit - It should be known that I was initially researching this issue back in 2012 and the solution was surely not as known as it is now, otherwise, I'd have found it then. We experience these issues during low usage and high usage. My server is Windows Server 2012. NET you’ll see all ASP. Troubleshoot hanging requests on IIS in 3 steps. These caches are mostly unchanged in IIS 7. First make sure that IIS logs are enabled for the website. txt * (bug 18751) Fix for buggage in profiling setup for some extensions on PHP. What is with that?? How satisfied are you with this response? Thanks for your feedback. " That is referring to Windows XP, look at the table just above that line and you'll see that Windows 7 Home Premium includes IIS 7. Resetting IIS will make pages load fast again, but page loading would become slow and unresponsive shortly after. 0 Express has all the core capabilities of IIS 10. In short, it is broke. x, just jump right into the IIS configuration of the website and locate the “HTTP Response Headers” item: And from there it’s pretty self-explanatory:. Take the tour. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System. The app is running very slow on t. Not bad for shared hosting and no CDN. NET page, it sometimes takes more than 30 seconds for the server to send the response (even for a 1k static file). Detect slow transactions with transaction tracing. Browsing to a site for the first time after the underlying IIS App Pool is recycled is extremely slow. How to speed up or slow down a keyboard If your keyboard responds too slowly, or even too quickly, it can turn the simplest of typing tasks into a misery. “Understanding our IIS” 2. NET, and LeanSentry. The VM has 2 CPU and 2GB of RAM with VMware Tools 10. There is some mention that web browsers simply time out or stop responding completely when they are accessing your website. NET Business Solutions docker encryption Extensibility FTP Hosting HTMLA HTTP2 IIS IIS 7 IIS 8 IIS 8. It does request based tracing, and produces a log file (in. My WordPress site is slow when I'm not using a VPN. com timed out after n. If you're having problems with w3wp. 71 (5 votes) Make sure that the response times of all the Ajax, web service calls are in line with the expectations. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories Cool M-slow = 15. 0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_01CF0563. IIS Show #10 - PlentyofFish. Freb logs comes in very handy while troubleshooting IIS issues to isolate the module which is taking time to execute. config for IIS thread properties or whatever is necessary but we need guidance. 5 IIS Express IIS News Item LeanSentry MicrosoftFlow MSP nano OneDrive Other PowerApps PowerShell Scripting Security SkyDrive SMTP SQL Server SSL storage System Administration Tech Hub. We've just moved to new server, which should only serve static files. If you too are facing the same. What is server response time? Server response time is the amount of time it takes for a web server to respond to a request from a browser. IIS supports HTTP, HTTP/2, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SMTP and NNTP. Recently, we found that one of our DNS servers was resolving external hostnames unacceptably slow — about 5 seconds, give or take. NET page, it sometimes takes more than 30 seconds for the server to send the response (even for a 1k static file). For more information and answers to commonly asked questions, see the SmarterTools Support Policy. The web uses sqlexpress or sql azure , but it seems like it has the same problem , an intermittent response delay, regardless of the type of sql I use. Configuring a Web Farm Using IIS Shared Configuration. When you enable output caching, IIS will keep a copy of requested webpages. Wcf Service (Framework 4. Mar 02, 2017 08:00 AM | Yuk Ding | LINK. NET Business Solutions docker encryption Extensibility FTP Hosting HTMLA HTTP2 IIS IIS 7 IIS 8 IIS 8. You can even have multiple allowed host names for one web site. Internet Information Services (IIS) 8. No matter if I request a static content, a php script via FastCGI or a ASP. Most of the times it takes less than 10 seconds to return response but sometimes it takes 60-80 seconds. Performance Best Practices for IIS Configuration. This is rare these days, because IIS request threads almost never block. Follow the procedure much like in the first tip above: disable all extensions, test the browser speed, enable one extension, re-test the speed, and repeat ad nauseam as. Forum discussion: I cannot figure what is going on. A dump is generated when a performance counter is exceeded or. More specifically, the very first request of the day will be slow, while all other requests will be fast. 97115B40" This document is a Single File Web Page, also known as a Web Archive file. If you can see the relevant call takes really long time, then you can get a memory dump to check. NET web application - Slow response; ASP. Analyzing the web request and the web response across multiple pages of the application using tools like Charles, Fiddler, Firebug, etc can provide you lot of information that you would not know otherwise. The most common and simple way to install Wordpress on a Windows server is to use the Web Platform Installer. Need access to an account? If your company has an existing Red Hat account, your organization administrator can grant you access. sys) receives and routes HTTP requests, and satisfies requests from its response cache. In this scenario, the internal IP address of the server is returned to the client in an HTTP response. NET - Fixing slow initial load for IIS - Stack Overflow. Here is a list of changes required to get everything running smoothly. net system tray app - slow response time when viewing form; Performance issues with ASP. Slow Response in Server 2008 R2 We're in the process of migrating our DNN site from Server 2003 x32 (IIS 6. But, a lot of users regularly complain about the slow and laggy Windows 10. Sep 01, 2016 at 4:41AM. NET web pages while working with a Home Edition of Windows, which does not support IIS. If the problem is caused by multiple users exceeding the 10 connection limit, the solution is to switch to a web server without this limit, such as a server version of IIS or maybe Apache. Why is Windows 10 so slow and sluggish after update to 1809? How satisfied are you with this response? Thanks for your feedback. Without monitoring IIS performance, you could end up leaving your site (and your users) hanging. Common DNS Issues in VPN Networking. How do I find which Port IIS connect for localhost on Windows 10 OS Hi I coded an application that is designed and developed using VS 2015, MS SQL Server Compact and IIS 7 Express, on Windows 10 OS. config set up is: How satisfied are you with this response? Thanks for your feedback. 0 is the version that ships as part of Windows Server 2012. How do I find which Port IIS connect for localhost on Windows 10 OS MS SQL Server Compact and IIS 7 Express, on Windows 10 OS. SharePoint performance mostly depends on Hard disk and memory however SP 2013 is a memory beast, I don't think 12gb is enough if it's a single development server, check this article out,. IIS worker process: completion port. The comprehensive IIS monitoring features in Server Performance & Configuration Bundle are designed to help you maintain high availability and monitor key server and website resources to better track performance across your environment. However running the report yields the EXACT same result. Application Initialization Module for IIS 7. I had so much information plus eight demos that I ended exactly 6 seconds before they cut me off. Windows 10 Running Slow! How to activate all Processors: 1) Click "start" on the windows desktop 2) Type "msconfig' into the search bar on the bottom. Users experience intermittent slow response times through out the day when attempting to open the MicroStrategy Web home page when running on Microsoft IIS 7 More specifically, the very first request of the day will be slow, while all other requests will be fast. I've changed the timeout from the default 20 minutes to 240, otherwise as far as I can tell all settings are. A kernel-mode webdriver (http. 97115B40" This document is a Single File Web Page, also known as a Web Archive file. Also, adrenaline causes a release of glucose, which a fight-or-flight response would use. Then add the following web. I am merely a system administrator, doing my daily thing at Vevida in the Netherlands. txt * (bug 18751) Fix for buggage in profiling setup for some extensions on PHP. We’ll start with the basics and then move into more advanced ways to monitor IIS performance. The Apache Tomcat software is developed in an open and participatory environment and released under the Apache License version 2. The response is analogous to the multiple-query test. Interact with other customers as well as SmarterTools Developers and cuistomer service teams. The screen capture file could not be uploaded to a Microsoft IIS web server 2 webGUI could become slow to respond. but the symptoms make it appear as though the IIS server/site is the slow point? slow, intermittently no response. config file to the Release subfolder:. Ran into a problem with extremely slow SQL Server connections when connecting to the server. By using the non-threadsafe libraries we get around this. txt * (bug 18751) Fix for buggage in profiling setup for some extensions on PHP. Edit - It should be known that I was initially researching this issue back in 2012 and the solution was surely not as known as it is now, otherwise, I'd have found it then. 0 Express is a free, simple and self-contained version of IIS that is optimized for developers. 6m developers to have your questions answered on Application is loading very slow of UI for WinForms General Discussions. 1 Pro 64-bit as it shows a notification to upgrade. Gmail slow still? Decrease the number of browser extensions or plugins. IIS hangs happen when all available IIS threads are blocked, causing IIS to stop dequeueing additional requests. IIS is the Microsoft implementation of an HTTP web server. Find answers to Windows 10 Slow to recognise CD's from the expert community at Experts Exchange. 5 seconds - (3. Im running a classic asp app on win server 2012 , iis 8. Thanks for the response! I certainly will search for what you are talking about here. Brotli is able to outperform gzip in many situations. net system tray app - slow response time when viewing form; Performance issues with ASP. Troubleshoot IIS7 errors like a pro « Mike Volodarsky’s … – Update: We recently launched a service that significantly helps you understand, troubleshoot, and improve IIS and ASP. It uses a process model similar to that of IIS 8. NET Integrated Pipeline on IIS, there are things you just can't do with ASP. Add me to the list of people who had GLACIALLY slow SMB/CIFS/network file transfer performance between Server 2012 and XP or 7 clients – no idea if it would be any better with a Windows 8 client, but it was TERRIBLE (read: less than 500 KB/sec on gigabit network with solid state storage) file server performance and XP clients. 0 Application Initialization. IIS application is using SQL database on other server, but there have been no. At worst, they’ll stop using your services. We invite you to participate in this open development project. My old laptop (clean "insider" install of 10) with lower specs was blazing fast compared to the much more powerful desktop PC. Then add the following web. by Michael Lehman. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories Cool M-slow = 15. 0 other than following changes I can think of. I am ecstatic. Hello Fabian, I have a couple of recommendations. " An investigation into the components of slow web page download times. ir - تست SEO, منتخب صنعت پارس, MSP, Estimation Traffic and Earnings And Speed And Optimization Tips, Montakhab Sanat Pars. 19 while trying to load your website in IIS. Microsoft IIS Server is a critical part of the. You are on a low quality hosting service with poor support. Am I missing. An Airman from the 41st Helicopter Maintenance Unit sits in an HH-60G Pavehawk helicopter, Sept. Combinable CSS Images. Start of the week I migrated VM's to VMware 6 cluster. The result of this is that the server then opens a random unprivileged port (P > 1023) and sends P back to the client in response to the PASV command. NET Issues with Log Parser - Slow Performance -1. Web administrators who use Internet Information Services (IIS) may need to periodically disable the caching of content that changes frequently. What is server response time? Server response time is the amount of time it takes for a web server to respond to a request from a browser. Ask Question behavior. Board index; All times are UTC ; Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group phpBB® Forum Software. , for potential Tropical Storm Florence response. Recently, we found that one of our DNS servers was resolving external hostnames unacceptably slow — about 5 seconds, give or take. IIS also incorporates the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is responsible to mete out resources for thread processing. The smaller compressed response sizes allows for better space utilization and faster page loads. NET page, it sometimes takes more than 30 seconds for the server to send the response (even for a 1k static file). If you can see the relevant call takes really long time, then you can get a memory dump to check. x, Response with status codes other than 200 will not be compressed. Without touching the server at all, my IIS 7 suddenly got terribly slow. If the main problem is slow SQL processing times, then there is a lot of information out there about tuning and tracking down issues. Using IIS 8 Application Initialization is an optional install component in Windows or the Windows Server Role Manager: This is an optional component so make sure you explicitly select it. I ported my windows 8. MIME-Version: 1. Why is My Database Application so Slow? Dan Turner. To make sure you are getting the fastest speeds possible, let’s check a couple of things before you run a speed test and start making phone calls. A web browser gets first the HTML file that includes all the references to the assets, which need to be downloaded subsequentially. This setting can dramatically influence the scalability of your Web applications and the performance of your server in general.